This process can be represented as a diagram known as a model as is shown below. Understand and apply selective attention It would also beneficial if you could read the section in your text books about ‘memory’. Try to present the 2nd stimuli as close to the first as possible for maximum effect. 3. Whilst the ball is still in flight, it clips the net (S2). Factors affecting the nature and development of elite performance - A2 physical education AQA. OCR A Level PE. Information Processing Describe how information is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous system. A level PE Info processing, memory and reaction time 1. © Copyright Get Revising 2020 all rights reserved. A Level PE. This is closely related to the Open Loop Theory as all information is received in one block and feedback does not influence the action. Two of the better-known models which are generally referred to are Welford's (Welford 1968) and Whiting's (Whiting 1969). Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. Pencil should only be used for drawing. Information Processing describes how performers: Input: (stimulus identification) Information is gathered from the environment/display, and a stimulus is recognised, Decision Making: (Response Selection) Gathered information is used to create a motor programme/muscle movements, Output: (Response Programme) The muscle movement produced in response to the stimulus, Feedback: Information about the performance is received - can be internal/external, These allow us to have a better understanding of how people process information in sport, These are only models (psychologists ideas of what might happen as we perform and learn), The most popular models were made by Whiting, Welford and Schmidt, Involves info from the environment which enters the brain via the sense organs. Developmental psychologists who adopt the information processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child's mind. A level PE Info Processing 2013 1. The 3 stages above can also be named Stimulus Identification, Response Selection, and Response Programming. Most notable in the inception of information processing models is Atkinson and Shriffin’s ‘stage theory,’ presenting a sequential method, as discussed above, of input-processing-output[2]. The best example of this is a false start by a sprinter – they were anticipating the gun and the motor programme began too early! The PRP works alongside the single channel hypothesis. DESCRIBE THE BASIC MODEL OF INFORMATION (2 marks) The basic model of information processing is based on four stages: input, decision making, output and feedback. Aims: Understand how sports performers use information from the environment to facilitate movement by using various senses to collect information. 3) Apply one information processing model to your chosen PPP activity. For example, a goalkeeper’s reaction to a penalty will be faster than their reaction to an unexpected shot from outside the box. The section will look at various information processing models from the basic model to Whitings model. Information processing theory is the approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. He saw basic information processing as having 3 main stages: Input of information (perception) Throughput (decision making) Output (response) Information processing model: Sensory, working, and long term memory ... A-level PE Physiological LAST MINUTE REVISION 2019 - Duration: 3:54:40. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. A Well-illustrated Overview on the Information Processing Theory. 4.0 / 5 based on 2 ratings. The section will look at various information processing models from the basic model to Whitings model. If the stimulus is expected then the reaction is quicker than if it is unexpected. For example, when playing hockey, a dummy or fake movement works to put the defender off as they initiate a response to this dummy which they must then stop and correct with a response for the attacker’s actual movement. Feedback tells performers how well they performed. A Level PE Information Processing 2. • Subject matter that had a higher than average level of unfamiliar facts and for which students would have little … Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The development of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s had an important influence on psychology and was, in part, responsible for the cognitive approach becoming the dominant approach in modern psychology (taking over from behaviorism). An extended, more detailed example of this is shown below. These cookies do not store any personal information. After a decision has been made, the body performs the skilled movement using the effectors. The levels of processing model (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last. Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE, It allows sport psychologists to break down skills and understand how people acquire skills, Before skills are performed we first process all the information available to us from our surroundings. Also covered are Hicks Law, factors affecting Reaction time, Single Channel Hypothesis and Psychological Refractory Period. The section will look at various information processing models from the basic model to Whitings model. The PRP is the lull in time between finishing processing stimuli 1, before processing and making a decision on stimuli 2. © Copyright Get Revising 2020 all rights reserved. the feel of the ball in your hands or kicking a ball with the inside of your foot, Kinaesthesis -> the inner sense of the muscles which give automatic information about the position of joints and tension in the muscles, Occurs in the brain and describes the process whereby the sensory input is given meaning, Interprets information and identifies the elements that are important, This recognition and interpretation relies on pervious experience and the memory of that experience to help make a decision of what to do in response to the stimuli, Perception involves the brain comparing present info with past info stored in the LTM, Before the decision is made (in how to react) all the info from the display has to be simplified or there would be too much for the brain to cope with at once, All the info is simplified into relevant and irrelevant cues through the process of selective attention. Explain at least 1 model of information processing and apply this to a sporting situation 3. The primary application of the levels of processing framework was to verbal learning settings (i.e., memorization of word lists); however, it has been applied to reading and language learning (e.g., Cermak & Craik, 1979). Depth of processing falls on a shallow to deep continuum. For example, if making an overhead clear in badminton, we must decide, where to aim the shot, how hard to hit it, where to position ourselves afterward, etc. 806 8067 22, Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE, Sport and society and the role of technology in physical activity and sport, See all Acquiring movement skills resources », Key Advice from Warwick Alumnus: Investment Banking to PE », Physical education OCR 24th may 2016 AS CREATE UNOFFICAL MARK SCHEME », Stay at uni or go back to permanent employment? It is a delay in response to a second stimuli which comes in close succession to the last. Name and explain the three stages of perception. Information Processing PowerPoint and notes. Skill Acquisition - Year 2. 2 minutes A-LEVEL PHYSICAL EDUCATION – 7582/1 7 05 In relation to energy transfer, evaluate the use of altitude training to increase performance in a 1500m running event. Materials . By the end of the lesson: ALL: identify the key features of the perceptual mechanism; associate findings with the information processing model MOST: explain, using examples, selective attention and the DCR process SOME: analyse the features of the perceptual mechanism and Instructions • Use black ink or black ball-point pen. 4.5 / 5 based on 5 ratings. The model contains four parts that are linked together in a 'learning loop'. A Model of Information Processing • How Well Do We Remember What We Learn in School? A Level PE Information Processing 2. Figure 7.15 shows Whiting’s information processing model. The stronger the stimulus is, the faster the reaction will be. The time taken to forget about the first stimuli and then process and respond to S2 is the PRP. This section describes the difference between abilities and skills, skill continuums, and their uses in a practical context. Use a HIP model to analyse sports performance. AS PE Acquisition of Skill Information Processing - week 7. The ability to use past experiences to select the correct reaction speeds up the response time. Each store is a unitary structure and has its own characteristics in terms of encoding, capacity and duration. Also covered are Hicks Law, factors affecting Reaction time, Single Channel Hypothesis and Psychological Refractory Period. The following tries to explain the process … Memory & Skill Acquisition Read More » These are stable and enduring characteristics which are genetic and can be either completely perceptual, completely motor or a … Ability & Skill Read More » Information processing theory has been developed and broadened over the years. Both models reflect the same process, although they use slightly different terminology. The Single Channel Hypothesis states that once a stimulus has been recognised and is in the process of being dealt with any secondary stimuli must wait until the first has been dealt with before it can be processed. This is because it is easier to focus the selective attention on strong stimuli. Without memory, information processing, and skill learning are not possible. 4) Finally, PLEASE read your notes and text book to reinforce what has been taught in the lesson. The computer gave cognitive psychologists a metaphor, or analogy, to which they could compare human mental processing. This section looks at memory, it’s stores and methods to improve memory. The EverLearner 13,101 views. A-level PHYSICAL EDUCATION Paper 1 Factors affecting participation in physical activity and sport . An example of this is a tennis player waiting at the baseline for a return shot. From an attacker’s point of view, the more stimuli you can present to an attacker, the easier it should be to beat them. Specimen 2018 Morning Time allowed: 2 hours . A Level PE- Information Processing (I.P): The way the human brain processes information was first applied to skill acquisition in 1968 (Welford), a psychologist. The use of the computer as a tool for thinking how the human mind … Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) created a model to link information processes to memory, which was known as ‘The multi-store model and memory’. Information Processing Model. Information processing theory describes how information is received, processed, stored and then retrieved in the human brain. Response (or reaction) time, is a persons ability to take in and process information to make a decision and then put this into action. The information processing model is one method that can be used to consider how learning takes place. If an event is anticipated then often the movements required for the reaction are prepared and began before the stimulus occurs. When we are performing a skill, many decisions must be made. With integrated tasks and exam questions. Use of memory and different memory stores. Just like a computer, the human mind takes in information, organizes and stores it to be retrieved at a later time. balance needed in a tennis serve or any other specific movement, e.g. Whether learning new skills or performing previously learned skills, the brain controls all thoughts and actions and will use information received from the sensory organs and information stored in the memory to decide the action to be taken. [8 marks] Marks for this question: AO1 = 2, AO2 = 3 and AO3 = 3 . It is a vital component of the information processing model and can focus on knowledge of results or … Response time is affected by the following: The time to make a decision increases, with the more choices which are available, as shown in the graph below: Reaction time speeds up as we develop through childhood, into adulthood, to an optimal point where it then deteriorates again. Response time = Reaction Time (The time between the onset of a stimulus and the initiation of a response. A Level PE - Biomechanic Principles & Stability: Newton’s Law’s of Motion: ... Attribution theory. The Decision Making Stage - Perceptual Mechanisms: 1) Detection  2) Comparison  3) Recognition (D.C.R). This is also sometimes referred to as the psychological refractory period. 1) Improvement in performance of a skill can be better understood by reference to the processes involved. Home Skill acquisition Psych Anatomy and physiology Exercise physiology ... Information processing has not been taken out of the specification, however, there is no great emphasis on the model, more to do with attention, and selective attention. Abilities Your ability is the skills and qualities which make it possible for you to achieve a task. This importance can be seen in the way memory links with other processes in the information processing model. Males tend to have a faster response time than females, although this deteriorates more rapidly in old age. The model is a simple process that a performer carries out when deciding what to do. Chapter 7 - information processing CHAPTER 7 – INFORMATION PROCESSING Text between pages 93 and 99, answers to questions on page 99 of the text book. Also covered are Hicks Law, factors affecting Reaction time, Single Channel Hypothesis and Psychological Refractory Period. The next image demonstrates what happens when feedback is also incorporated as occurs in the Closed Loop Theory. He saw basic information processing as having 3 main stages: Information Processing: ’the structure and function of all the components that make up the process in the brain where information is received, dealt with and passed to the muscles for movement to occur, - Take in large amounts of information from the environment, - Make decisions about which response to make. The memory is a complicated thing and the whole process of memorising a skill or event is not yet known. Start studying AQA A Level PE Information Processing. The Information Processing Model is a framework used by cognitive psychologists to explain and describe mental processes. This is known as spatial anticipation. ». )+ Movement Time (The time it takes to complete a movement.). Information Processing Describe how information is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous system. Read more on Information processing. (Equivalent to UK A Level Physical Education). A Level PE- Information Processing (I.P): The way the human brain processes information was first applied to skill acquisition in 1968 (Welford), a psychologist. • Fill in the boxes at the bottom of this page. The Levels of Processing model, created by Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart in 1972, describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. The diagram below shows the process involved in making such decisions. This model describes memory in terms of the information flow through a system. When we are performing a skill, many decisions must be made. • More than 7 out of 10 studies reported less than a 20% loss of what was learned. With weaker stimuli, more irrelevant information is taken in. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. Information Processing. 806 8067 22 AQA A Level Physical Education - New Specification. The model likens the thinking process to how a computer works. There are 3 main receptor systems that take info from the display: Audition: Hearing the call of a teammate/coach or hearing the ball hit the opponents racket, Proprioception: These senses are 3 internal methods used by a performer to pick up info, e.g. With more stimuli, the decision-making process slows down. We can only process one piece of information at a time. An information processing model Input This is the information sent by … For this paper you may have: • a calculator. When we are performing a skill, many decisions must be made. They see that the ball is arriving on their forehand side and they start to decide upon the appropriate response (S1). 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